Z-pinning or tufting
Composite laminate structures tend to delaminate or shear. Techniques have been developed and tried that can prevent delamination or shearing. One of these techniques is to insert carbon pins in the z-direction of the material, so-called z-pinning. The inserted pins or z-fibres prevent cracking/delamination as a result of shearing stresses. The pins are manufactured by means of the pultrusion process.
This technique is still developing at full steam and in the future there will be a wide range of applications.